Moscow was recently recognized as one of Europe's top destinations for those traveling to see holiday festivals. Ice skating rinks, performances, master classes, games, shopping, and more abound throughout the city. Photo from

Новый Год по-русски – A Russian New Year: Language Lesson

Published: December 29, 2019

The following bilingual Russian MiniLesson is meant to build your vocabulary by providing Russian phrases within English text. Hover over the bold Russian to reveal its English translation

In most of the Western world, Christmas is celebrated on December 25 and is one of the most popular holidays of the year. Families gather to обменяться подарками. In Russia, however, Christmas is mainly observed as a религиозный праздник, and is celebrated, в соответствии с российской православной традицией, on January 7. The most popular holiday in Russia is without a doubt New Year’s. Many Russians с нетерпением ждут новогодних праздников, as this time is often the самое яркое событие года.

Many traditions that ассоциируются с Рождеством in Europe and the US are associated with New Year’s in Russia. For example, almost all Russian families will наряжать ёлку for New Year’s, similar to the tradition of decorating a Christmas tree in the West. Several традиции празднования Нового года came to Russia from other countries. Some sources say that новогодняя ёлка came from Germany, and the tradition of наряжать ёлку came from France.

The holiday is heavily associated with food. New Year’s meals in Russia often consist of several salads and perhaps one or two main dishes. Салат «Оливье» (Olivier salad) and Сельдь «под шубой» (herring “under a fur coat”) are two staples of the holiday, to be found on nearly every table. Салат «Оливье» делается из нарезанного кубиками картофеля, овощей, яиц, ветчины, отварной курицы или говядины, и заправляется майонезом. Для сельди «под шубой» нарезанная кусочками сельдь покрывается слоями отваренных и натертых на терке овощей: картофеля, моркови и свеклы, с добавлением майонеза. .

Mандарины are also associated by many Russians with the holiday. Oranges, tangerines, plums, and other fruits were also once special (and expensive) holiday treats in the West. However, advances in transport and storage technology helped reduce the price of fruit in winter and the West largely abandoned the tradition by the mid-20th century. In Russia, however, the Soviet government often imported tangerines specifically for the holiday until the late 20th century, helping to maintain the tradition in Russia.

Just as children in the West anxiously wait for Santa Claus to bring them presents, Russian children expect подарки от Деда Мороза. Дед Мороз путешествует на тройке – a traditional Russian carriage driven by three horses. He travels with his внучка Снегурочка, and appears after его три раза позовут. It is fairly common now for parents in Russia to hire actors from an agency to play Дед Мороз and Снегурочка at family holiday parties. The actors are asked to вручить подарок and often развлечь детей играми. The characters are also hired to come to schools, work places, and can be found roaming the city festivals that also occur in nearly every major Russian city and town.

Little children, as a rule, верят в Деда Мороза, just as many Western children believe in Santa Claus. They долго готовятся for his arrival: children наряжаются – often in their best clothes or in carnival-like costumes and учат стихотворение или песню for Дед Мороз, who gives them presents as a reward for their performance. At schools, children have a новогодний вечер or, for younger children, a новогодний утренник, where they водят хороводы вокруг ёлки and play забавные игры. Many theatres will also offer special ёлки, a term that literally means “fir trees,” but refers to a specific type of party and performance. These are always holiday themed, geared for children, and often (but not always) interactive.

Above: a video of a Russian утренник, a New Year event held at most Russian schools. The children most often act as both performers and audience members in an event that often lasts about an hour.

If Дед Мороз does not come in person, he brings presents at night and кладет подарки под ёлку. Дед Мороз is usually pictured as using the front door or entering by magic. This is one way that he differs from Santa Claus in the West who is спускается из камина и оставляет подарки под деревом.

Дед Мороз носит расшитая шубу с атласным поясом, расшитые рукавицы, and сафьяновые сапоги or валенки. He carries a посох, which is usually described as magical. Unlike many images of Santa in the West, Дед Мороз не носит очков and обходится без эльфов. He is also usually pictured as a very tall and fit man, despite his age.

Ded Moroz (Grandfather Frost) with Snegurochka (the Snow Maiden).

As for adults, большинство людей празднуют Новый год дома или на даче, most often with a lot of food and a few presents. Often, the TV will be on in the background, playing classic movies such as Ирония судьбы, или С легким паром! or special variety programs that aired with very limited commercial breaks thanks to one sponsor that usually gets generous product placement during the show. The most popular of these is called, appropriately, Оливье Шоу.

Some Russians prefer to выйти в свет. Молодежь любит собираться большими шумными компаниями, ходить в гости, or отмечать этот праздник в ресторанах, в лесу, на площадях и улицах своих городов у украшенных ёлок. New Year’s Eve spent at a club or restaurant will usually be quite expensive and places must be reserved weeks in advance. For Muscovites, it is increasingly popular to go to Suzdal or some other town near Moscow to встретить Новый год, where the experience is cheaper and more rustic.

Another New Year’s tradition is the новогоднее обращение главы государства к народу. Shortly before midnight, the country’s president выступает с коротким обращением which is carried on several national channels. The picture then shifts to show кремлевские куранты бьют полночь. At this time, люди встают из-за стола и чокаются бокалами с шампанским, and some people кричат «Ура!».

A screenshot from the film Elki 2 showing a small family gathering with large meal. Note the champaign and oranges on the table.

In some families, people пишут на бумажках желание and then глотают бумажки, or just загадывают желание. В России на Новый год возлагают особые надежды, и независимо от социального положения и возраста в этот день ждут чуда. In fact, a whole series of movies were set up around this belief. Appropriately called “Ёлки,” the films bring together a wide range of characters through complicated plot lines that end up fixing families, finding love, bringing joy, and a whole host of other miracles.

About the author

Andrei Nesterov

Andrei Nesterov

Andrei Nesterov leads SRAS' Research Services, performing remote archive research and consultations for researchers around the globe. Andrei graduated from Ural State University (journalism) and Irkutsk State Linguistic University (English). He also studied public policy and journalism at Duke University on a Muskie Fellowship and taught Russian at West Virginia University. As a journalist, he has reported in both Russian and English language outlets and has years of archival research experience. He has travelled Russia extensively and penned many stories on the “real Russia” which lies beyond the capital and major cities. Andrei also contributes news, feature stories, and language resources to the SRAS Family of Sites.

Program attended: SRAS Staff Member

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