Russia’sis different from what is typically found in the USA. While occur in both Russia and America, it is much more common for Russian teachers to be and perhaps .
may make seemingly sarcastic remarks regarding a student’s performance, for example. Writer Anton Chekhov described this in his 19th century novel A Boring Story, where an elderly professor of medicine tells his student, .
On the other hand, a Russian teacher may be harsh because he/she is genuinely concerned about a student’s misfortunes, as if they are the teacher’s own failures. Many Russian teachers feel that he/she should be more than just an instructor, but shouldtheir students towards greater accomplishments. This is thus done by continually pressing students to do better.
US students are also often surprised to find that class schedules in Russian universities are often unpredictable, especially at the beginning of the semester. The university will shuffle rooms and professors to find times that work for them. A professor maystudents a bit after the scheduled lesson time, or the class earlier. is more flexible in Russia, and lateness, especially on the part of the professor, while not standard, is much more socially acceptable. However, at some point, the same professor might invite students to his/her home to discuss their theses in an informal setting over tea.
In terms of studying and teaching languages in Russia, students who are taking Russian lessons with teachers that don’t speak English, as well as people who may be tutoring English to Russian students, should be aware of some basic grammar terms.
- or for short
- or for short
can be or , as well as or . Russian nouns also have – , , . Unlike Russian, English has , which are often used before nouns. can be and .
Nouns; groups of nouns have a specific .
– Names of the Russian cases:
is a case, in that it is most often used to express the subject of the sentence; all the other cases are .
Verbs, they have a . Russian verbs have three different , , .
When conjugating verbs, there are three different:
- : singular – я читаю, plural – мы читаем
- : singular – ты читаешь, plural – вы читаете
- : singular – он/она читает, plural – они читают
Verbs in Russian can beor . English verbs, on the other hand, have the following aspects:
English usesin question constructions (i.e. I speak English—Do you speak English?). Verbs in English can be either or .
Verbs can be in the, or . Russian tends to have more passive constructions and impersonal sentences, especially in formal speech. express a state or action that occurs independently from the observer; grammatically speaking, this is either when the sentence has no subject ( – ), or when the sentence has a logical , but no : .
Russian often uses subject-less and/or impersonal sentences that seem, to English speakers, to avoid accepting responsibility for decisions or actions: “”; “ ….”
Everyhas certain : and . In the sentence “ ”, “ ” is the , “ ” is the , while “ ” is and “ ” is .
There are two types of objects:and . In Russian, a direct object is a noun or pronoun in the accusative case without a proposition: ; sometimes a direct object is in the genitive case, if there is negation or to specify a part of the whole) – .
All other objects are, for example: , .
In English, the direct object is the same as in Russian. A direct object receives the verb’s action: it is directly affected by the action. An indirect object, on the other hand, is the receiver of the direct object, and it usually comes just before it. In the sentence, “He gave his mother flowers,” “flowers” is the direct object, and “his mother” is the indirect object. An indirect object can also come after a preposition, most commonly “to”: “He gave flowers to his mother.” Indirect objects can also be the object of a preposition – a noun or a pronoun that completes the preposition’s meaning: “The cat is looking at the fish.”
Verbs express different. The expresses real facts in the present, past, or future; the expresses unreal or improbable actions; and the expresses a request or order.
is the hardest thing for foreigners trying to master Russian . Russian words have one , and all other syllables are .
is easier to master, since it is generally subject to the same principles as in English. There are however, some important differences in the intonation patterns of both languages, especially in yes/no questions.
Unlike Russian, English hasin questions (Will you be at home this morning?), while in Russian is somewhat flexible. There is, however, a slight change in meaning depending on word order: whichever part of the sentence is mentioned first is emphasized.
are tricky for learners of all languages. They are also called , and they are constantly being updated. For instance, some recent idioms are: “ ” and “ ”.
is a broader concept than . A is composed of two words that have a logical and grammatical relationship; one word is the , and the other is the , such as “ “, where is the and is the
In terms of words and combinations, one should be familiar withand . are words with the same or similar meanings, such as , , , while are pairs of words with opposite meanings. Each word in the pair is the antithesis of the other, such as , , .